As a new year begins, perhaps you have thought about some changes you want to make in your life. Maybe you have set an intention to try something new, change a habit or create a new one.
More and more, I hear people saying they want to try mindfulness. There has been a huge surge of interest in it. If you google “mindfulness”, you will get almost 50 million hits. But what is mindfulness anyway?
Mindfulness is a pretty straightforward word. It suggests that the mind is fully paying attention to what is happening, to what you are doing and to the space you are moving through. Sounds simple? Well, as the saying goes, mindfulness is simple – but not easy.
We all have a tendency to lose touch with the present. Our minds drift to obsessive thoughts about something that just happened, concerns about the past or worrying about the future. This creates anxiety and reduces our ability to enjoy or deal with what is happening in the moment.
There are slight variations on the meaning of mindfulness. One of the best known proponents of mindfulness is Jon Kabat-Zinn, a biomedical scientist who founded the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in 1979. He created the Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program, the most researched mindfulness program in the world. He defines mindfulness as: “Paying attention – in a particular way – on purpose – in the present moment –non-judgementally”. The “non-judgemental” aspect is key, and one of the most challenging things to do. We tend to beat ourselves up, adding more layers to our stress.
Another definition treats mindfulness as a quality that we already possess, rather than something we have to create or summon up: “Mindfulness is the basic human ability to be fully present, aware of where we are and what we are doing, and not overly reactive or overwhelmed by what’s going on around us”. (Mindful, Oct. 2014)
Mindfulness is in all of us. All wisdom traditions have long-held practices that foster becoming more conscious, more intentional and more aware of one’s inner processes. Science is now backing up what many have known for centuries.
While mindfulness is innate, it can also be cultivated through proven techniques such as sitting, walking and moving meditation, body scans, mindful listening and speaking, short pauses in our everyday life and by integrating mindfulness practices with other activities such as sports or yoga. Although it is not helpful to start a mindfulness practice fixated on the benefits, there are benefits: increased self awareness, emotional balance, stress reduction, enhanced performance, greater focus and clarity, and increased attention to our own and others’ well-being.
Mindfulness meditation and practices can give us a time and space in our lives where we can be naturally curious and suspend judgement about what is going on in our body and mind. By approaching our experience with warmth and kindness, we can “befriend” ourselves and become more compassionate towards ourselves and others.
Some other things to know about mindfulness:
- Mindfulness is not exotic. It is already in us, what we already do and how we already are. Think of when you are “in the flow” doing something you love, such as gardening, interacting with a child or pet, or playing a sport.
- We already have the capacity to be present. Simple practices can help us cultivate this capacity, benefiting ourselves, our loved ones, friends and neighbours, people we work with, and the institutions and organizations we are connected to.
- It doesn’t require us to change who we are. Solutions that ask us to change or become something we’re not have forever failed us. Mindfulness recognizes and cultivates the best of who we are as human beings.
- Anyone can do it. Mindfulness cultivates universal human qualities and does not require anyone to change their values and beliefs.
- It’s a way of living. Mindfulness is more than just a practice or a tool. It brings awareness and caring into our daily lives and everything we do. It reduces needless stress.
- It’s evidence-based. Science and experience over many decades demonstrate mindfulness’s positive benefits. It is now being used in many fields: education, justice, health, mental health and addictions, professional sports, occupational health and safety, the arts and in business, to name a few.
- It sparks creativity and innovation. The world has become increasingly complex. Mindfulness can lead us to effective responses and solutions to very challenging situations.
So back to that original question: “What is mindfulness anyway?” To know what mindfulness really is, it’s best to try it for awhile. Here is a simple practice that you can use as a “breather” or pause during your day. Or use it as the first step in responding to whatever challenging situations and feelings arise in a particular moment.
Notice it involves paying attention to your thoughts, feelings and physical sensations in your body… in other words, your whole being. By paying attention to what is actually going on, we can slow things down and respond rather than react.
The Three-Minute Breathing Space
From The Mindful Way through Depression – Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness, by Mark Williams, John Teasdale, Zindel Segal and Jon Kabat-Zinn.
Step 1 – Becoming Aware
Begin by deliberately adopting an erect (but not rigid) and dignified posture, whether you are sitting or standing. If possible, close your eyes. Then, bringing your awareness to your inner experience. Ask: What is my experience right now?
- What thoughts are going through my mind? As best you can, acknowledge thoughts as mental events, perhaps putting them into words.
- What feelings are here? Turn toward any sense of emotional discomfort or unpleasant feelings, acknowledging their presence.
- What body sensations are here right now? Perhaps quickly scan the body to pick up any sensations of tightness or bracing.
Any time your mind wanders from the focus of your experience (and it will!), gently bring it back with a sense of friendliness, without any harshness or judgement.
Step 2 – Gathering
Redirect your attention to focus on the physical sensations of the breath breathing itself.
Move in close to the sense of the breath in the belly… feeling the sensations of the belly wall expanding as the breath comes in… and falling back as the breath goes out.
Follow the breath all the way in and all the way out, using the breath to anchor yourself in the present.
Step 3 – Expanding
Now expand the field of your awareness around your breathing so that, in addition to the sensations of the breath, it includes a sense of the body as a whole, your posture and facial expression.
If you become aware of any sensations of discomfort, tension or resistance, zero in on them by breathing into them on each in-breath and breathing out from them on each out-breath as you soften and open. If you want to, you might say to yourself on the out-breath, “It’s okay whatever it is, it’s already here: let me feel it.”
As best you can, bring this expanded awareness into the next moments of your day. Practice taking a “breather” several times a day and notice any changes in how you are in your daily life.
So if you are interested in learning ways to feel more hopeful, engaged and equipped to respond more creatively and thoughtfully in your work and life, consider starting 2017 with some simple mindfulness practices. And remember, there is nothing to be perfect about – that’s why it’s called mindfulness “practice”.
There are many ways to explore mindfulness further. Here are some excellent websites that include free guided mindfulness practices:
Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care and Society www.umassmed.edu/cfm
Mindfulness Awareness Research Centre – UCLA www.marc.ucla.edu
Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy www.mbct.com
Mindful: Living with Awareness and Compassion www.mindful.org
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